CONTACT HOURS: 5
COURSE PURPOSE:
Basic Physics II is a course designed to introduce foundational Physics concepts and applications relating to electricity and magnetism; the CRO; Optics; transistors and diode; modern Physics to learners.
COUSE DESCRIPTION:
Basic Physics II is the second course in a two-semester sequence that covers the following four main sections: (1) electricity and magnetism, including Coulomb's law, electric fields, capacitance, current, resistance, inductance, electric circuits and magnetism (2) Working principle and application of the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope; (3) electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter, which covers the E/M spectrum, blackbody radiation, particle physics, the Bohr model atom, and atomic physics; (4) Phenomena and application of interference, diffraction and polarisation of light; (5) Transistors and diodes ; and (6) optics, which covers reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, and optical instruments. At the conclusion of the Basic Physics II courses, students will have a firm understanding of the basics of classical physics and an introduction to modern physics.
EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES:
By the end of the course, the student should be able to
i. state and explain Properties of magnetic materials and their uses
ii. Discuss the direct and alternating currents; Inductance and capacitance
iii. Describe the working and uses of diodes; rectification of currents.
iv. Explain the design of Transistors and describe their characteristics and application
v. Discuss reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, and optical instruments.
vi. Describe the structure, working principle and application of the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
vii. Explain the particle and wave theories of light; Phenomena and application of interference, diffraction and polarisation of light
viii. Explore Modern physics
BOOKS FOR FURTHER READING
1. Halliday, D. and Resnick, R (1978), Physics Part 1, (3rd Edition), John Wiley and sons, New York
2. Bueche, F.J., (1986), Introduction to Physics for Scientists and Engineers, (4th Edition), Mcgraw-Hill Book company, New York

Contact Hours: 5
• Three hours lecture per week
• Two hours practical per week
Purpose: To enable the learners to acquire the basic physics concepts which are applicable in optical instruments.
Course Content (Main Topics Only):
• Waves
• Optics
COUSE DESCRIPTION
The wave equation and its solutions, properties of waves, wavefront, the electromagnetic spectrum, light sources (thermionic and atomic).
Characteristics of Light: Polarisation, polarisers, Coherence, coherence length interference.
Atomic theory of the refractive index: Maxwell's equations in matter - Polarisation of matter, Absorption and Dispersion functions.
Geometrical Optics: reflection and transmission angles and coefficients, Brewster Angle, principle of ray tracing, illustrations.
Diffraction: General Kirchhoff - Sommerfield theory, Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations, applications (slit and edge diffraction patterns).
Lasers: Einstein's constants, spontaneous and stimulated emissions, laser principle, properties of laser light and some applications of lasers.
Course Examination:
• Practicals 20%
• Two CATS (1 hr test each) 20%
• Main EXAM (3 hr exam) 60%
REFERENCES
1. Ghatak, A. (2009). Optics. 4th edition. ISBN 0-07-338048-2
2. Band, Y.B. (2010). Light and Matter: Electromagnetism, Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers. John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0471-89931-0
3. Any other relevant text on optics

Contact Hours: 5
• Three hours lecture per week
• Two hours practical per week
Purpose: To enable the learners to acquire the basic physics concepts which are applicable in optical instruments.
Course Content (Main Topics Only):
• Waves
• Optics
COUSE DESCRIPTION
The wave equation and its solutions, properties of waves, wavefront, the electromagnetic spectrum, light sources (thermionic and atomic).
Characteristics of Light: Polarisation, polarisers, Coherence, coherence length interference.
Atomic theory of the refractive index: Maxwell's equations in matter - Polarisation of matter, Absorption and Dispersion functions.
Geometrical Optics: reflection and transmission angles and coefficients, Brewster Angle, principle of ray tracing, illustrations.
Diffraction: General Kirchhoff - Sommerfield theory, Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations, applications (slit and edge diffraction patterns).
Lasers: Einstein's constants, spontaneous and stimulated emissions, laser principle, properties of laser light and some applications of lasers.
Course Examination:
• Practicals 20%
• Two CATS (1 hr test each) 20%
• Main EXAM (3 hr exam) 60%
REFERENCES
1. Ghatak, A. (2009). Optics. 4th edition. ISBN 0-07-338048-2
2. Band, Y.B. (2010). Light and Matter: Electromagnetism, Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers. John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0471-89931-0
3. Any other relevant text on optics

Contact Hours: 3
Pre-requisites:
Purpose
To provide fundamental aspects of heat and temperature and to illustrate some of its basic phenomena and devices
Expected Learning Outcomes
By the end of the course the learner should be able to:
i) Understand the basic concepts of Heat
ii) State the basic law of thermodynamics
iii) Solve basic problems of thermodynamics
iv) Learn how to use some devices of Heat
Course Content
Basic concepts: State variables. Intensive and extensive parameters, Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic equilibrium. Ideal gas law. Temperature. Reversible processes. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: Clausius inequality. Carnot cycles and carnot engines. Entropy, Equilibrium, ideal gas etc. Heat engines and pumps. Mathematical formulation of thermodynamics: Thermodynamic potentials: U,H,F,G. Maxwell's relations.
General thermodynamic relations. Legendre transformations. Joule and Joule-Kelvin coefficients etc. Applications of Above: magnetic cooling, PVT systems, radiation. Stefan-Boltzmann law. Superconductivity and superfluidity. 1st and 2nd order phase changes open systems: chemical potential and equilibrium. Third law of thermodynamics: Nearnst theorem, microscopic view point, absolute zero.
Teaching / Learning Methodologies
Lectures; Tutorials; Class discussion; Practical exercises
Instructional Materials and Equipment
Handouts; Chalk board; Practical manuals; Laboratory (Science)
Course Assessment
Examination - 60%; Continuous Assessments (Exercises and Tests) - 40%; Total - 100%
Recommended Text Books
i) Dr. S.k. Sinha (2009); Thermal Physics. A.k. Publications ISBN: 8190712829
ii) Stephen Blundell, Katherine M. Blundell (2009) Concepts In Thermal Physics. Oxford University Press, Usa ISBN: 0199562105
iii) Charles Kittel (2003); Thermal Physics; W H Free man New York
iv) Daniel (V) Schrowder (2004); An introduction to thermal Physic ; Addision – Wesley Germany

Credit Hours: 3
Pre-requisites: PHY 110
Purpose
To introduce students to curvilinear motion, dynamic of systems of particle, conservation of energy
Expected Learning Outcomes
By the end of the course the learner should be able to:
i) Describe the dynamics of a systems of particles
ii) Solve Euler’s equations
iii) Explain moments and conservations of energy
Course outline
Frames of reference: inertial and non-inertial, relative velocity and the Galilean transformations.
Work-energy theorem: conservative force and potential energy, example viz conservation of linear momentum.
Centre of mass (c): Centre of mass frame of reference, torque and conservation of angular momentum, collision of two particles, rocket, etc.
Rigid body dynamic: moment of inertia (MI) and related theorems, calculation of (MI) for a few cases. Rotational Kinetic energy, fly-wheel. Gravitational potential and Field:
Brief review of Newton's law of gravitation: Potential energy of two or more masses. Cases of thin spherical shell and spheres, central forces, two-body force problem reduction to one - body problem. The equations of motion. Differential equation for the orbit. Inverse square law of force and Kepler's laws. Limitations of Newton's laws.
Lagrangian Mechanics: generalized coordinates, holonomic systems Hamilton's principle and Lagrange's equations.
Course Assessment: Examination - 60%; Continuous Assessments (practicals, Exercises and Tests) - 40%; Total - 100%
Recommended Text Books
i) Chorlton F; (2004). Textbook Of Dynamics, 2e.Cbs Publishers & Distributors; ISBN: 8123908806
ii) John Farrar, Joseph Lovering; (2008). Elements Of Electricity, Magnetism, And Electro-dynamics: Embracing The Latest Discoveries And Improvements, Digested Into The Form Of A Treatise (184)Kessinger Publishing; ISBN: 1436832527
iii) AntonyMeriam; Engineering Mechanics; Wesley (UK)
Text Books for further Reading
i) J I Meriam (2000); Dynamics; Wesley UK
ii) Any other Relevant text on classical mechanics

- Lecturer: wesley cheruiyot

- Lecturer: wesley cheruiyot

Integral
calculus is a course that introduces students to the concept of integration and
its applications.** **

**Course description**

Anti-derivatives; Integration; Methods (all) of integration; Simple applications of integration, Mean-Value theorem of Integral Calculus: Introduction to multiple integration.

**Course Objectives**

The objectives of this course are to:-

• provide learners with the knowledge of integration using various rules and methods

• equip students with the concepts of applying integration in solving geometrical figures

• provide the students with knowledge of proving Theorems

.