Introduction: Meaning and importance of research in environmental studies; research proposal, research objectives, types of research, research process, common problems encountered in research. Research problem: Definition and selection of research problem, techniques in defining an environmental problem. Experimental design: meaning and features of a good environmental design, types and basic principles. Sampling: Definition and theory, types of sampling designs, sources of error. Types of data: primary and secondary data. Sampling distribution; hypothesis testing; parametric and non- Parametric tests; computing statistical packages. Use of documents as a resource material: abstracting, scientific writing and presentation

The course examines the relationship between environment and development